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The HMS Challenger; One of the Earliest Scientific Expeditions That Changed the Course of Scientific History

 

HMS Challenger Anatomy of a penguin

"Anatomy of Penguins" The Voyage of HMS Challenger

Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons

The HMS Challenger set sail on December 21, 1872, from Portsmouth, England, containing an impressive crew of physicists, chemists, biologists, artists, and expert navigators, all of which shared the common goal of circumnavigating the globe while studying the flora and fauna that live within our oceans. On its 68,890-nautical-mile-voyage, the Challenger obtained 492 deep-sea soundings, 133 bottom samples, 151 open-water trawls, and 263 serial water temperature readings. It is estimated that on this voyage nearly 4,700 new species of marine life were discovered. Among some of the instruments used during this voyage were a shallow-water dredge, a deep-sea trawl (that had no closing device), specimen jars containing alcohol for preservation, thermometers and water sampling devices such as the Buchanan water sampler, 144 miles of Italian hemp rope, and 12.5 miles of piano wire for sampling gear, as well as many microscopes and instruments for the on-board laboratories. The ship contained a natural history laboratory where specimens were examined, identified, dissected, and drawn, and a chemistry laboratory containing a (then) state-of-the-art boiling device called a carbonic acid analysis apparatus, used for analyzing carbonic acid contained in samples.

References:

  1. Oceanography: An Introduction to the Marine Environment (Peter K. Weyl, 1970)
  2. Rice, A.L. (1999). "The Challenger Expedition". Understanding the Oceans: Marine Science in the Wake of HMS Challenger. Routledge. pp. 27–48
  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Challenger_expedition

 

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25 Confused Homonym Pairs

(This blog is an excerpt from Daily Writing Tips. For the full version, follow the link at the bottom of this blog.)

By Mark Nichol

Dozens of homonyms, words that sound like other words but are spelled differently, are sometimes confused for their near doppelgängers. This post lists and defines twenty-five frequently confused word pairs, in which the first word is usually used mistakenly in place of the second one. (Definitions for words are simplified and not comprehensive.)


  1. add: increase
    ad: abbreviation for advertisement

  2. aid: help
    aide: one who helps

  3. block: area bounded by streets, or an obstacle or a solid object
    bloc: group with ideas or ideology in common

  4. cannon: piece of artillery
    canon: collection of works, or regulation, or standards or rules or a collection of them

  5. canvas: durable, heavy protective material
    canvass: debate, examine, or go out in search of responses

  6. chomp: bite down
    champ: bite down (same meaning, but idiom is “champ at the bit”)

  7. compliment: praise
    complement: complete or enhance

  8. conscious: aware
    conscience: adherence to or regard for fairness or moral strength

  9. council: deliberative or legislative body
    counsel: legal adviser

  10. discrete: separate
    discreet: modest, prudent, unobtrusive

(Visit the site for the full list)

https://www.dailywritingtips.com/25-confused-homonym-pairs/

 

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GRAMMAR: Me, Myself, and I

monkey typing

Good grammar is important in business dealings, whether spoken or written.  Here are a couple of guidelines to help you communicate effectively.

 

Reflexive Pronouns:  Me, Myself, and I

When you’re unsure of whether to use me or I in a sentence that includes you and at least one other person, just think of how you would use it if you were talking about only yourself. 

          Incorrect:      Will you please make hotel reservations for John and I?

          Correct:         Will you please make hotel reservations for [John and] me?

          Correct:         John and I need you to make hotel reservations for us.

Myself is correct only when you are the subject and the object of the sentence and you are emphasizing the action.  The sentence below is correct, but would be fine without myself.

Correct:         I made the reservations myself.

 

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ANAMAR Employee Spotlight Questionnaire: Nadia Lombardero

 

20170612 112920 resized

Ms. Lombardero is ANAMAR's owner and President. She has been working with various governmental agencies and managing a variety of large, complex environmental projects since 1991. She has a B.S. in Chemistry from Texas A&M University and an M.S. in Analytical Chemistry and Toxicology from the University of Florida. Her areas of expertise include sediment chemistry and toxicology, organic chemistry, QA/QC protocols, business administration and business development, project management, laboratory and field audits, and analytical data interpretation. 

Q: How long have you worked at ANAMAR?

  • Since 2000

Q: What is your title at ANAMAR?

  • Owner, President

Q: What do you like most about your job?

  • Helping people

Q: What has been your favorite project/task at ANAMAR and why?

  • Field surveys- I enjoy the outdoors and the challenge

Q: Before working at ANAMAR, what was the most unusual or interesting job you've ever had?

  • Being Donald Duck

Q: When you were a kid, what did you want to be when you grew up?

  • A veterinarian

Q: Finish this sentence: "Something you may not know about me is...."

  • I love climbing trees and playing arborist.

Q:  Describe what you were like at the age of 10.

  • Way too serious and studious

Q:  Who is your favorite musician or band?

  • Too many to name, depends on the day and my mood

Q:  Do you have any pets? If so, what kind of pet/pets and what are their names?

  • Just lost my beloved kitty of 20 years...Bianca

Q:  If you could take a free vacation to anywhere in the world, where would you go?

  • Tibet

Q:  What are 3 of your favorite hobbies outside of work?

  • Cooking
  • Climbing (almost any type of climbing)
  • SCUBA diving

Q:  If you could be an ocean dweller for a day which type of sea creature would you be?

  • Dolphin

Q:  What is the first thing you would buy if you won the lottery?

  • Establish scholarship funds and help educate people about the need to sustainably protect our environment.

DivPic

 

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ANAMAR Biologist, Jason Seitz’s Publication on Taxonomic Resolution of Sawfish Rosta Published in Endangered Species Research (ESR)

 

sawfish FILEminimizer

A synopsis of Jason Seitz and Jan Jeffrey Hoover’s evaluations of two large private collections of sawfish rosta (saws) has been published in the latest issue of ESR, an online-only international and multidisciplinary open-access journal on endangered species research.

Click here to read the article.

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Florida’s Introduced Nonindigenous and Invasive Mollusks (Clams and Snails): Final Installment of Our 3-part Series on Biological Invasions in Florida

 

This article is a repost from 2015, it discusses the species of introduced mollusks (bivalves and gastropods, better known as clams and snails) of Florida’s terrestrial and aquatic habitats along with a general discussion of the possible effects of biological invasions on native wildlife and habitats.  The first part of this three-part series was on introduced fishes in the state, and the second was on introduced amphibians and reptiles.  This discussion on introduced mollusks of Florida will wrap up our series!

As of this writing, at least 31 species of nonindigenous mollusks representing 17 families have been introduced to Florida (Exhibit 3).  Of these, about 68% have established breeding populations in one or more counties.  There are at least 5 species of introduced clams and 26 species of introduced snails, including terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species.  Of these mollusks, about 68% have established breeding populations in one or more counties.  Examples of established invasive species include the Asian green mussel (Perna viridis) (Exhibit 1) and the giant East African snail (Achatina fulica) (Exhibit 2).  

Exhibit 1 of JCS Introduced Mollusks Writeup 040115

 

Some well-known negative effects of introduced snails are large-scale consumption and decimation of native vegetation and out-competing native species through direct competition for limited resources and through predation on their eggs and young. 

The giant East African snail (Achatina fulica) (Exhibit 2) is a member of a family that contains the largest land snails in the world (Abbott 1989).  The species was first introduced to Florida in 1966 when a young boy brought three live snails from Hawaii (where it is also introduced) to Miami as pets.  Upon discovery of the smuggled snails, the boy’s grandmother released the snails into her garden.  Over the next several years the snails multiplied and spread to neighboring lands.  Florida state agricultural authorities were eventually alerted to the establishment of this destructive species and the species was eradicated by 1972 to the tune of $300,000 (Abbott 1989) to more than $1 million (FDACS 2011).  Between 1966 and 1972, the three specimens brought to Florida by the boy had multiplied to over 18,000 snails.  One specimen of the Miami colony reportedly measured a whopping seven inches in shell length (Abbott 1989)!  

Exhibit 2 of JCS Introduced Mollusks Writeup 040115

 

In September 2011, the giant East African snail was found to have been reestablished in Miami after the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services responded to a call from a Miami homeowner.  Within 6 months, over 40,000 snails were collected in Miami by state and federal authorities (USDA 2012).  Although authorities are working hard to remove all the individuals of this species from Florida, the eradication will prove very difficult and the likelihood of complete eradication currently appears low.

The giant East African snail is introduced and invasive in several other parts of the world, including Hawaii and other islands in the Pacific, the Philippines, Madagascar, and parts of Asia.  The species is known to consume some 500 species of plants in both agricultural and natural areas.  Because the snail requires large amounts of calcium to grow and strengthen its great shell, the species causes damage to plaster and stucco while consuming these products for their calcium content.  It is a known carrier of a parasitic nematode that is capable of spreading meningitis in humans (FDACS 2011). 

The parasitic nematode known as rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is carried by the giant East African snail and has an interesting life cycle.  The larvae are ingested by the snail (the intermediate host of the worm) when feeding on rat feces (don’t ask).  The larvae grow and approach maturity inside the snail.  It takes the consumption of an infected snail by a rat (the definitive host) for the parasitic nematode to complete its life cycle by reaching maturity and producing eggs inside the rat.  The mature nematode eggs hatch into larvae while still within the rat and are expelled with the rat’s feces.  People can become infected by eating undercooked or raw (who eats raw snails?) infected snails.  People may also become infected by eating raw produce such as lettuce that contains a small snail or slug.  An infected person cannot transmit the disease to other people.  Infection of rat lungworm in humans is rare in the continental United States, but at least one case was recorded in 1993 in New Orleans where a boy ingested a raw snail (apparently on a dare) and became infected with rat lungworm.  The parasitic nematode is host-specific and humans are not its intended host, so the parasite typically dies inside an infected person, even without treatment.  However, the symptoms range from headache, muscle aches, stiff neck, skin irritation, fever, nausea, and vomiting until the parasite dies (CDC 2010).  

 

In 2012, a captive orangutan (Pongo sp.) housed in Miami was found to have been infected with the rat lungworm.  The animal had a history of eating snails.  Researchers from the University of Florida collected snails and rat feces from around the area where the orangutan was housed and examined the samples for evidence of the parasitic nematode.  Several of the snails and all of the rat feces tested positive for rat lungworm (UF 2015).  The species of snails found to have been infected included the introduced species Asian trampsnail (Bradybaena similaris), garden zachrysia (Zachrysia provisoria), and the striate drop (Alcadia striata) (J. Slapcinsky, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, pers. comm. 03/03/015).

Although reducing the effects of invasive nonindigenous species (such as those listed in Exhibit 3) is an important part of restoration and management efforts in natural areas of Florida and elsewhere, introduced mollusks are typically a lower priority than other organisms, such as invasive plants or fishes, except when they are known carriers of disease or damage agricultural crops or other property.  Nonetheless, invasive organisms of all kinds can cause significant stress to native ecosystems and biological invasion is widely viewed as a major cause of the reduction in native plant and animal diversity (Elton 1958, Wilcove et al. 1998).  Invasive species are known to affect most natural areas of the United States (Villazon 2009) and worldwide (Sala et al. 2000).

It should go without saying that the intentional introduction of any nonindigenous species, whether it be a plant or animal and regardless of size or assumed innocuousness, should never be attempted.  The reasons are many and the costs can be severe in terms of biological effects, human health, and economic impacts.  Nonindigenous species introduced to new areas have the capacity to explode in numbers and outcompete native species for limited resources such as food, water, and shelter.  Native species are at a competitive disadvantage because they have not had time to evolve defense mechanisms that would otherwise allow them to successfully compete against the introduced species.  The introduced species can have a competitive edge where it is introduced outside its native range partly because these species lack the predators they would have in their native range.  This idea was coined fairly recently by scientists with the term ‘predator release’.  The competition between native and nonindigenous species can result in the extinction of native species, spread of diseases and parasites, and displacement of whole communities, and may even cause physical changes to the environment.

 

 Jasons 1Jasons 2Jasons 3Jasons 4

jasons 5

 

Sources:

Abbott, R.T.  1989. Compendium of Landsnails.  A Color Guide to More than 2,000 of the World’s Terrestrial Shells.  American Malacologists, Inc., Melbourne, FL.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC).  2010.  Parasites – Angiostrongyliasis (Also Known as Angiostrongylus Infection) [online resource].  Accessed 03/24/15 at http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/angiostrongylus/‌gen_info/faqs.html#whatangiostrongylus#whatangiostrongylus.

Elton, C.S.  1958.  The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Methuen and Co., Ltd., Strand, London.

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS).  2011.  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Identified Giant African Land Snails in Miami-Dade County [online resource].  Accessed 03/24/15 at http://www.freshfromflorida.com/News-Events/Press-Releases/2011-Press-Releases/Florida-Department-of-Agriculture-and-Consumer-Services-Identifies-Giant-African-Land-Snails-in-Miami-Dade-County.

Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH).  2015.  Invertebrate Zoology Master Database [online resource].  Accessed 03/23/15 at http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/scripts/dbs/malacol_pub.asp.

 Sala, O.E. F.S. Chapin, J.J. Armesto, E. Berlow, J. Bloomfield, R. Dirzo, E. Huber-Sanwald, L.F. Huenneke, R.B. Jackson, A. Kinzig, R. Leemans, D.M. Lodge, H.A. Mooney, M. Oesterheld, N.L. Poff, M.T. Sykes, B.H. Walker, M. Walker, and D.H. Wall.  2000.  Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287:1770–1774.

Seitz, J.C.  2014.  Assessing Stream-mediated Seed and Shoot Dispersal of Invasive Plants in an Urban Riparian Wetland [thesis].  University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

University of Florida (UF).  2015.  UF Researchers: Rare Parasite Colonizing Snails in South Florida [online resource].  Accessed 03/24/15 at http://news.ufl.edu/archive/2015/02/uf-researchers-rare-parasite-colonizing-snails-in-south-florida.html#prettyPhoto.

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).  2012.  Escargot? More like Escar-No! [online resource].  Accessed 03/24/15 at http://blogs.usda.gov/2012/04/19/escargot-more-like-escar-no/.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).  2015.  NAS – Nonindigenous Aquatic Species [online resource].  Accessed 03/23/15 at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/SpeciesList.aspx?Group=Mollusks&Sortby=1&state=FL.

Villazon, K.A.  2009.  Methods to Restore Native Plant Communities after Invasive Species Removal: Marl Prairie Ponds and an Abandoned Phosphate Mine in Florida.  MS thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Wilcove, D.S., D. Rothstein, J. Dubow, A. Phillips, and E. Losos.  1998.  Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience 48:607–615.

Wilson, L.D. and L. Porras.  1983.  The Ecological Impact of Man on the South Florida Herpetofauna.  The University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Special Publication No. 9, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

 

 

 

 

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Florida’s Introduced Nonindigenous and Invasive Amphibians and Reptiles: Part 2 of a 3-part Series on Biological Invasions in Florida

This article was first written and posted in 2015. We decided to dust it off and repost it. Enjoy!

This article discusses the species of introduced herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles) of Florida’s terrestrial and aquatic habitats along with a general discussion of the possible effects of biological invasions on native wildlife and habitats.  The first part of this three-part series was on introduced fishes in the state.  The final part of the series will be on introduced mollusks (bivalves and gastropods, or clams and snails & slugs) of Florida. 

As of this writing, at least 110 species of nonindigenous herpetofauna (colloquially called ‘herptiles’ for short) representing 34 families have been introduced to Florida (Exhibits 1 and 4).  Of the species introduced to Florida, about 43% are now considered to have established breeding populations in one or more counties (Exhibit 2).  This amounts to 47 established herptile species in Florida as of this writing.  Both urban and natural areas of Florida are affected by these biological invaders.  For example, the first reticulated python (Python reticulatus) observed in Florida was during the 1980s, where it was seen living under a house in Miami.  This species has since been observed and (or) collected in several other areas of Florida, although it is not known whether the species has established self-sustaining breeding populations (Exhibit 3).   Lizards are the most successful group and account for the majority (72%) of established herptiles in Florida today.  The list in Exhibit 4 below contains the species known to have been introduced, although it is important to note that new species are introduced on a regular basis in Florida, so the list is constantly expanding.  Most introduced herptiles are native to the tropics (Wilson and Porras 1983).  The fact that Florida’s climate is subtropical is a major reason why many introduced species have successfully established themselves in the state.  Nonindigenous herptiles have been introduced via a variety of mechanisms:

  • Stowaways in shipments of ornamental plants or produce
  • Intentional or accidental release by pet dealers or owners
  • Intentional or accidental release from zoological parks
  • Intentional release by government agencies to combat nuisance organisms

photo 1 Herptiles.PNG

Exhibit 1.  Percentages per group of introduced species of amphibians and reptiles in Florida today.  Sources: Florida Museum of Natural History (http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/florida-amphibians-reptiles/checklist-atlas/), USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species online database (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/SpeciesList.aspx?group=Amphibians&state=FL&Sortby=1), Krysko et al. (2011), J.C.Seitz unpublished data.

photo 2 herptiles.PNG

Exhibit 2.  Percentages per group of introduced species of amphibians and reptiles that are known to have established self-sustaining breeding populations in Florida today.  Sources: Florida Museum of Natural History (http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/florida-amphibians-reptiles/checklist-atlas/), USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species online database (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/SpeciesList.aspx?group=Amphibians&state=FL&Sortby=1), Krysko et al. (2011), J.C.Seitz unpublished data.

photo 3 herptiles.PNG

Exhibit 3.  Several sightings and captures of the reticulated python (Python reticulatus) have occurred in Florida counties since the late 1980s, including Broward, Collier, Manatee, Miami-Dade, and Pinellas counties. 

The red pin-shaped symbols above represent the location of a sighting or capture.  The black numbers surrounded by red denote locations where more than one sighting or capture was recorded.  Modified from the UF Department of Wildlife Ecology & Conservation (http://ufwildlife.ifas.ufl.edu/snakes/reticulatedpython.shtml).

Wilson and Porras predicted in the early 1980s that southern Florida would eventually be overrun with introduced exotic wildlife.  The current trends in established and spreading introduced species suggest that these authors may have been right. 

Reducing the effects of invasive nonindigenous species is an important part of restoration and management efforts in natural areas of Florida, United States, and worldwide, as these species cause significant stress to native ecosystems (Adams and Steigerwalt 2010) and biological invasion is widely viewed as a major cause of the reduction in native plant and animal diversity (Elton 1958, Wilcove et al. 1998).  Invasive species are known to affect most natural areas of the United States (Villazon 2009) and worldwide (Sala et al. 2000).

It should go without saying that the intentional introduction of any nonindigenous species, whether it be a plant or animal and regardless of size or assumed innocuousness, should never be attempted.  The reasons are many and the costs can be severe, both in terms of biological effects and economic impacts.  Nonindigenous species introduced to new areas have the capacity to explode in numbers and outcompete native species for limited resources such as food, water, and shelter.  Native species are at a competitive disadvantage because they have not had time to evolve defense mechanisms that would otherwise allow them to successfully compete against the introduced species.  The competition between native and nonindigenous species can result in the extinction of native species, the spread of diseases and parasites, displacement of whole communities, and may even cause physical changes to the environment. 

Exhibit 4.  Nonindigenous amphibians and reptiles recorded in Florida.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Locality Records

Current Status

ANURA

FROGS & TOADS

 

 

BOMBINATORIDAE

FIRE-BELLIED TOADS

 

 

Bombina orientalis

Oriental Fire-bellied Toad

Broward Co.

Unknown

BUFONIDAE

AMERICAN TOADS

 

 

Atelopus zeteki

Panamanian Golden Frog

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Southeast Asian Toad

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Rhaebo blombergi

Columbian Giant Toad

Broward Co. (1963)

Failed

Rhinella marina

Cane Toad

Southern Florida, portions of central and northern Florida

Established (southern FL)

Unknown (elsewhere)

ELEUTERODACTYLIDAE

RAINFROGS

 

 

Eleutherodactylus coqui

Coqui

Miami-Dade Co.

Established

Eleutherodactylus planirostris

Greenhouse Frog

Throughout most of Florida

Established (throughout)

Eleutherodactylus portoricensis

Forest Coqui

Miami-Dade Co. (1964)

Collected

HYLIDAE

TREEFROGS

 

 

Litoria caerulea

Australian Green Treefrog

Broward, Collier, & Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

Osteopilus septentrionalis

Cuban Treefrog

Throughout most of Florida

Established (most of FL)

Pachymedusa dacnicolor

Mexican Leaf Frog

Miami-Dade Co. (1964)

Failed

Pseudacris sierra

Sierran Chorus Frog

Hillsborough & Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

HYPEROLIIDAE

SEDGE AND BUSH FROGS

 

 

Afrixalus fornasini

Fornasini's Spiny Reed Frog

Broward Co.

Failed

MICROHYLIDAE

NARROWMOUTH TOADS

 

 

Kaloula pulchra

Malaysian Painted Frog

Broward Co.

Unknown

PIPIDAE

TONGUELESS FROGS

 

 

Hymenochirus boettgeri

Zaire Dwarf Clawed Frog

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Xenopus laevis

African Clawed Frog

Brevard, Hillsborough, & Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

AMPHIUMIDAE

AQUATIC SALAMANDERS

 

 

Amphiuma tridactylum

Three-toed Amphiuma

Broward Co.

Unknown

SALAMANDRIDAE

TRUE SALAMANDERS AND NEWTS

 

 

Cynops orientalis

Oriental Fire-bellied Newt

Broward & Sumter Co.

Unknown (Broward Co.)

Collected (Sumter Co.)

Cynops pyrrhogaster

Japanese Fire-bellied Salamander

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens

Red-spotted Newt

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Pachytriton labiatus

Paddle-Tail Newt

Broward Co.

Failed

TESTUDINES

TURTLES & TORTOISES

 

 

BATAGURIDAE

BATAGURID TURTLES

 

 

Ocadia sinensis

Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle

 Alachua Co. (1972)

Eradicated

Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima

Central American Ornate Wood Turtle

Manatee Co.

Failed

Rhinoclemmys punctularia

Spot-legged Wood Turtle

Miami-Dade Co.

Established (Miccosukee Indian Reservation)

Collected (Parrot Jungle Trail, Jungle Island)

CHELIDAE

SOUTH AMERICAN SIDE-NECKED TURTLES

 

 

Chelus fimbriatus

Matamata

Broward Co.

Failed

Platemys platycephala

Twist-necked Turtle

Collier Co.

Collected

EMYDIDAE

POND TURTLES

 

 

Chrysemys dorsalis

Southern Painted Turtle

Alachua & Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

Chrysemys picta

Western Painted Turtle

Jackson, Miami-Dade, & Orange Co.

Unknown (Jackson Co.)

Failed (Miami-Dade Co.)

Collected (Orange Co.)

Glyptemys insculpta

Wood Turtle

St. Johns Co.

Failed

Graptemys barbouri

Barbour's Map Turtle

Leon Co.

Collected

Graptemys ernsti

Escambia Map Turtle

Orange Co.

Unknown

Graptemys ouachitensis

Ouachita Map Turtle

Miami-Dade & Palm Beach Co.

Collected (Miami-Dade Co.)

Unknown (Palm Beach Co.)

Graptemys pseudogeographica

False Map Turtle

Brevard, Columbia, Gilchrist, & Miami-Dade Co.

Failed (Miami-Dade Co.)

Unknown (elsewhere)

Trachemys dorbigni

Brazilian Slider

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Trachemys scripta callirostris

Columbian Slider

Miami-Dade & Monroe Co.

Failed (Miami-Dade Co.)

Unknown (Monroe Co.)

Trachemys scripta elegans

Red-eared Slider

Throughout most of Florida

Established (throughout)

Trachemys scripta scripta

Yellow-bellied Slider

Broward, Lee, & Miami-Dade Co.

Established (Lee Co.)

Unknown (Broward & Miami-Dade Co.

Trachemys stejnegeri malonei

Inagua Slider

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

KINOSTERNIDAE

MUD & MUSK TURTLES

 

 

Kinosternon scorpioides

Scorpion Mud Turtle

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Staurotypus salvinii

Pacific Coast giant musk turtle

Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

Pelusios subniger

East African Black Mud Turtle

Miami-Dade Co.

Collected

PELOMEDUSIDAE

AFRICAN SIDE-NECKED TURTLES

 

 

Podocnemis lewyana

Magdalena River Turtle

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Podocnemis sextuberculata

Six-tubercled River turtle

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Podocnemis unifilis

Yellow-spotted River Turtle

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

TESTUDINIDAE

LAND TORTOISES

 

 

Chelonoidis denticulata

Yellowfoot Tortoise

Collier Co.

Collected

TRIONYCHIDAE

SOFTSHELL TURTLES

 

 

Apalone spinifera

Spiny Softshell

Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

CROCODYLIA

CROCODILES & ALLIGATORS

 

 

ALLIGATORIDAE

ALLIGATORS

 

 

Caiman crocodilus

Spectacled Caiman

Broward, Miami-Dade, Palm Beach, & Seminole Co.

Established (Broward & Miami-Dade Co.)

Unknown (elsewhere)

Paleosuchus palpebrosus

Cuvier's Smooth-fronted Caiman

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Paleosuchus trigonatus

Schneider's Smooth-fronted Caiman

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

CROCODYLIDAE

CROCODILES

 

 

Crocodylus niloticus

Nile Crocodile

Hendry & Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

Mecistops cataphractus

African Slender-snouted Crocodile

Miami-Dade Co.

Failed

SQUAMATA

AMPHISBAENIANS, LIZARDS, & SNAKES

 

 

CORYTOPHANIDAE

HELMET LIZARDS

 

 

Basiliscus vittatus

Brown Basilisk

Nine counties in southern FL

Established (Broward, Collier, Glades, Indian River, Miami-Dade, Palm Beach, & St. Lucie Co.)

Unknown (elsewhere)

IGUANIDAE

IGUANAS

 

 

Ctenosaura pectinata

Mexican Spinytail Iguana

Broward & Miami-Dade Co.

Established (Miami-Dade Co.)

Unknown (Broward Co.)

Ctenosaura similis

Black Spinytail Iguana

Nine coastal counties in southern FL

Established (most coastal counties in southern FL)

Unknown (elsewhere)

Iguana iguana

Green Iguana

Throughout coastal southern FL and along Lake Okeechobee, isolated areas elsewhere in FL

Established (many coastal counties in southern FL)

Unknown (northern & central FL)

PHRYNOSOMATIDAE

NORTH AMERICAN SPINY LIZARDS

 

 

Phrynosoma cornutum

Texas Horned Lizard

Spottily distributed throughout FL

Established (Duval Co. & western panhandle coastal areas)

Unknown (elsewhere)

POLYCHROTIDAE

ANOLES

 

 

Anolis chlorocyanus

Hispaniolan Green Anole

Broward & Palm Beach Co.

Established (Broward Co.)

Unknown (Palm Beach Co.)

Anolis cristatellus

Puerto Rican Crested Anole

Broward & Miami-Dade Co.

Established (Miami-Dade Co.)

Unknown (Broward Co.)

Anolis cybotes

Largehead Anole

Miami-Dade, Broward, & Martin Co.

Established (Miami-Dade Co.)

Unknown (Broward & Martin Co.)

Anolis distichus

Bark Anole

Most of coastal southern FL

Established (most of coastal southern FL)

Anolis equestris

Knight Anole

Most of coastal southern FL, spottily distributed in inland counties

Established (most of coastal southern FL)

Anolis garmani

Jamaican Giant Anole

Miami-Dade Co.

Established (Miami-Dade Co.)

Anolis porcatus

Cuban Green Anole

Miami-Dade & Monroe Co.

Possible hybridization with A. carolinensis (Miami-Dade & Monroe Co.)

Anolis sagrei

Brown Anole

Throughout peninsula and in at least 6 counties in panhandle

Established (most of FL)

Anolis trinitatis

St. Vincent Bush Anole

Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

TROPIDURIDAE

LAVA LIZARDS

 

 

Leiocephalus carinatus

Northern Curlytail Lizard

15 counties in peninsular FL

Established to unknown throughout

Leiocephalus schreibersii

Red-sided Curlytail Lizard

Broward, Charlotte, & Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

AGAMIDAE

AGAMID LIZARDS

 

 

Agama agama

African Rainbow Lizard

9 counties in peninsular FL

Established to unknown throughout

Calotes cf. versicolor

Variable Bloodsucker

Broward & St. Lucie Co.

Unknown (Broward Co.)

Established (St. Lucie Co.)

Leiolepis bellinana

Butterfly Lizard

Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown (Miami-Dade Co.)

CHAMAELEONIDAE

CHAMELEONS

 

 

Chamaeleo calyptratus

Veiled Chameleon

Alachua, Collier, Lee, & Hendry Co.

Unknown (Alachua & Collier Co.)

Established (Hendry & Miami-Dade Co.)

Furcifer oustaleti

Oustalet’s Chameleon

Miami-Dade Co.

Established (Miami-Dade Co.)

SPHAERODACTYLIDAE

NEW WORLD GECKOS

 

 

Gonatodes albogularis

Yellowhead Gecko

Broward, Miami-Dade, Monroe, & St. Lucie Co.

Likely established (Monroe Co.)

Failed (Broward, Miami-Dade, & St. Lucie Co.)

Sphaerodactylus argus

Ocellated Gecko

Monroe Co.

Established

Sphaerodactylus elegans

Ashy Gecko

Miami-Dade & Monroe Co.

Established (Miami-Dade & Monroe Co.)

GEKKONIDAE

WALL GECKOS

 

 

Gekko badenii

Golden Gecko

Broward Co. (Hollywood)

Unknown

Gekko gecko

Tokay Gecko

Spottily distributed between FL Keys north to Tallahassee

Established (spottily between FL Keys to Tallahassee)

Hemidactylus frenatus

Common House Gecko

Broward, Lee, Miami-Dade, & Monroe Co.

Established (Broward, Lee, Miami-Dade, & Monroe Co.)

Hemidactylus garnotti

Indo-Pacific House Gecko

Throughout southern, central, & northern FL peninsula; a few counties in panhandle

Established (throughout peninsula)

Unknown (panhandle)

Hemidactylus mabouia

Tropical House Gecko

Throughout southern FL, also parts of central and northern FL

Established (southern FL, parts of central and northern FL)

Hemidactylus platyurus

Asian Flat-tailed House Gecko

Alachua, Broward, Lee, Miami-Dade, & Pinellas Co.

Established (locally in vicinity of reptile dealerships)

Hemidactylus turcicus

Mediterranean Gecko

Throughout FL

Established (throughout)

Lepidodactylus lugubris

Mourning Gecko

Lee, Miami-Dade, & St. Lucie Co.

Unknown

Phelsuma grandis

Madagascar Giant Day Gecko

Broward, Lee, Monroe, & Palm Beach Co.

Established (Monroe & Palm Beach Co.)

Unknown (Broward & Lee Co.)

PHYLLODACTYLIDAE

PHYLLODACTYLID GECKOS

 

 

Tarentola annularis

Ringed Wall Gecko

Lee, Leon, Broward, & Miami-Dade Co.

Eradicated (Leon Co.)

Unknown (elsewhere)

Tarentola mauritanica

Moorish Gecko

Broward Co.; possibly Lee & Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

TEIIDAE

WHIPTAILS

 

 

Ameiva ameiva

Giant Ameiva

Broward, Collier, Miami-Dade, & Monroe Co.

Established (Broward, Collier, Miami-Dade, & Monroe Co.)

Aspidoscelis motaguae (formerly Cnemidophorus motaguae)

Giant Whiptail

Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown, possibly established (Miami-Dade Co.)

Cnemidophorus lemniscatus complex

Rainbow Whiptail

Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown, possibly established (Miami-Dade Co.)

Tupinambis merianae

Argentine Giant Tegu

Southern FL, spottily recorded in central and northern FL

Established (Hillsborough, Miami-Dade, & Polk Co.)

Unknown (elsewhere)

SCINCIDAE

SKINKS

 

 

Chalcides ocellatus

Ocellated Skink

Pasco & Broward Co.

Established (both counties)

Eutropis multifasciata

Many-lined Sun Skink

Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

Trachylepis quinquetaeniata

African Five-lined Skink

St. Lucie Co.

Unknown

VARANIDAE

MONITORS

 

 

Varanus albigularis

White-throated Monitor

Miami-Dade, Monroe, Osceola, & Palm-Beach Co.

Unknown

Varanus doreanus

Blue-tailed Monitor

Indian River Co.

Unknown

Varanus exanthematicus

Savannah Monitor

Collier, Hillsborough, Lee, Leon, Marian, Miami-Dade, Orange, Polk, Sarasota, & Seminole Co.

Unknown

Varanus jobiensis

Peach-throated Monitor

Palm Beach & Polk Co.

Unknown

Varanus niloticus

Nile Monitor

Southern FL, parts of central and northern FL

Established (Broward, Lee, Miami-Dade, & Palm Beach Co.)

Unknown (elsewhere)

Varanus salvator

Water Monitor

Alachua, Broward, Pinellas, & St. Johns Co.

Unknown

Varanus salvadorii

Crocodile Monitor

Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown

ACROCHORDIDAE

WORT SNAKES

 

 

Acrochordus javanicus

Javan File Snake

Broward & Miami-Dade Co.

Established (Miami-Dade Co.)

Unknown (Broward Co.)

BOIDAE

BOAS

 

 

Boa constrictor

Boa Constrictor

Southern FL, parts of central and northern FL

Established (Miami-Dade Co. at Charles Deering Estate)

Unknown (elsewhere)

Eunectes murinus

Green Anaconda

Collier & Osceola Co., possibly Monroe Co.

Collected (Collier & Osceola Co.)

Unknown (Monroe Co.)

Eunectes notaeus

Yellow Anaconda

Collier, Miami-Dade, & Monroe Co.

Collected (Monroe Co.)

Unknown (Collier & Miami-Dade Co.)

PYTHONIDAE

PYTHONS

 

 

Python bivittatus

Burmese Python

Southern FL, parts of central and northern FL

Established (Broward, Collier, Hendry, Miami-Dade, Monroe, & Palm Beach Co.)

Unknown (elsewhere)

Python regius

Ball Python

Collier Co.

Unknown

Python reticulatus

Reticulated Python

Broward, Collier, Manatee, Miami-Dade, & Pinellas Co.

Unknown

Python sebae

Northern African Rock Python

Miami-Dade & Sarasota Co.

Established: Miami-Dade Co.

Unknown: Sarasota Co.

COLUBRIDAE

COLUBRID SNAKES

 

 

Erpeton tentaculatus

Tentacled Snake

Broward Co.

Failed

TYPHLOPIDAE

BLINDSNAKES

 

 

Ramphotyphlops braminus

Brahminy Blindsnake

Central & southern FL, spottily distributed in northern FL

Established (southern, central, portions of northern FL)

Unknown (elsewhere)

Sources: Florida Museum of Natural History (http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/florida-amphibians-reptiles/checklist-atlas/), USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species online database (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/SpeciesList.aspx?group=Amphibians&state=FL&Sortby=1), Krysko et al. (2011), J.C.Seitz unpublished data.

Sources:

Adams, C.R. and N.M. Steigerwalt.  2010.  Research Needs and Logistic Impediments in Restoration, Enhancement, and Management Projects: A Survey of Land Managers. Publication ENH1161 [online resource].  Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.  Accessed 11/21/10 at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep423.

Elton, C.S.  1958.  The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants.  Methuen and Co., Ltd., Strand, London.

Florida Museum of Natural History.  2014.  Checklist & Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Florida [online resource].  Accessed 02/24/15 at http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/florida-amphibians-reptiles/checklist-atlas/.

Krysko, K.L., K.M. Enge, P.E. Moler.  2011.  Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Florida.  Project Agreement 08013, report submitted to Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, FL.

Sala, O.E. F.S. Chapin, J.J. Armesto, E. Berlow, J. Bloomfield, R. Dirzo, E. Huber-Sanwald, L.F. Huenneke, R.B. Jackson, A. Kinzig, R. Leemans, D.M. Lodge, H.A. Mooney, M. Oesterheld, N.L. Poff, M.T. Sykes, B.H. Walker, M. Walker, and D.H. Wall.  2000.  Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100.  Science 287:1770–1774.

U.S. Geological Survey.  2015.  NAS – Nonindigenous Aquatic Species [online resource].  Accessed 03/03/15 at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/CollectionInfo.aspx?SpeciesID=963&State=FL.

Villazon, K.A.  2009.  Methods to Restore Native Plant Communities after Invasive Species Removal: Marl Prairie Ponds and an Abandoned Phosphate Mine in Florida.  MS thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Wilcove, D.S., D. Rothstein, J. Dubow, A. Phillips, and E. Losos.  1998.  Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience 48:607–615.

Wilson, L.D. and L. Porras.  1983.  The Ecological Impact of Man on the South Florida Herpetofauna.  The University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Special Publication No. 9, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

 

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Word of the Day: Intexticated

Intexticated

Intexticated is a term coined to refer to an individual who is distracted by texting or composing an email on a handheld device while walking or driving, and is therefore unaware of the surroundings. As a result, this person may move and/or react as if intoxicated, which is why the term combines the words "texting" and "intoxicated."

The definition above is verbatim from an article published on Techopedia and can be found here.

In other words:

Friends Don’t Let Friends Drive While Intexticated.

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Gainesville Hosts 3rd Annual “Great Invader Raider Rally”

coral ardisia

This Saturday, January 28, from 9:00 am to 1:00 pm, the City of Gainesville will host the 3rd annual “Great Invader Raider Rally”. The rally is a 1-day volunteer-powered event to remove trash and non-native invasive plant life from around Gainesville’s city parks. The first portion of the event will be the clean-up effort and will take place from 9:00 to 11:00 am in pre-selected natural areas around Gainesville. The second portion of the event will be the celebration and will take place from 11:00 am to 1:00 pm at Morningside Nature Center. The celebration will feature live music from local band “Wax Wings” as well as prizes from local businesses to honor the top volunteers of 2016. All volunteers in this event must be registered. Registration ended January 27 with a whopping 913 participants registered! As a thank you, all participants will receive a commemorative Raider Rally t-shirt designed by local artist Molly Kempson and will feel gratified in knowing that local plant life now has a better chance to prosper.

The “Great Invader Raider Rally” is part of the “Gainesville Greenway Challenge” (GGC), a community/volunteer based invasive species removal effort, with participants meeting the first Saturday of every month. GGC funding is provided by a grant from Environmental Solutions for Communities, which is a $15 million 5-year initiative launched in 2012 by Wells Fargo Bank and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF).

“We are excited to have 913 volunteers to help remove extensive amounts of Coral ardisia tomorrow morning! With this many volunteers we can really put a dent in the invasive species population, which will allow our native ecosystems to thrive once again!”

-Kentucky Costellow

Recreation Leader

Parks, Recreation and Cultural Affairs Department

City of Gainesville

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ANAMAR Employee Spotlight Questionnaire: Terence “Terry” Cake

Terry sampling 2 FILEminimizer

Terry Cake is the Senior Engineer and Vice President of ANAMAR. He has been working in the fields of water resources, environmental engineering, and permitting with federal, state, and local agencies since 1992. He has a B.S. in Environmental Engineering from the University of Florida and an MBA from Colorado State University and is a registered Professional Engineer in Florida, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi. His areas of specialization include hydrology, surface water quality, water and wastewater treatment, environmental biology, coastal and estuarine ecology, geology, environmental chemistry, surveying, dredged material management, permitting and compliance, technical writing, data and business management and project management.

Q: How long have you worked at ANAMAR?

  • Since 2003

Q: What is your title at ANAMAR?

  • Vice-President, Senior Engineer, Project Manager

Q: What do you like most about your job?

  • Field work and winning contracts!

Q: What has been your favorite project/task at ANAMAR and why?

  • San Juan 103, because of the added challenge and variety of working in Puerto Rico.

Q: Before working at ANAMAR, what was the most unusual or interesting job you've ever had?

  • Unusual: Chicken farm worker
  • Interesting: Consulting Engineer in Cairo, Egypt

Q: When you were a kid, what did you want to be when you grew up?

  • An astronaut

Q:  Who is your favorite musician or band?

  • Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers

Q:  Do you have any pets? If so, what kind of pet/pets and what are their names?

  • Dog-Tessie the ANAMAR CCO (Chief Canine Officer)

Q:  If you could take a free vacation to anywhere in the world, where would you go?

  • Antarctica

Q:  What are 3 of your favorite hobbies outside of work?

  • Air boating, travel, fishing/diving

Q:  If you could time travel, to what place AND time would you go and why?

  • Orange Lake, Florida pre-Columbus – just to see what it looked like then.

Q:  What is the first thing you would buy if you won the lottery?

  • A new airboat

Q:  What is your favorite childhood memory?

  • Working on tractors with Grandpa

Terry sampling2 FILEminimizer

 

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Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) Partner with Fishbrain APP Users to Track Florida Nonnative Freshwater Fish

 

In an effort to utilize the age of technology, FWC has partnered with the U.S. Florida Fish Wildlife Services and Fishbrain app with hopes to invite the 250,000 anglers currently using the app in Florida to help monitor 15 types of nonnative freshwater fish found in Florida waters.

The Fishbrain APP is a $5.99 IOS, Android friendly application designed to allow anglers from around the world to track their catches as well as to share useful intel with other users.

The use of a phone APP to collect scientific data among scientists and ordinary people is becoming increasingly popular and foolproof as inevitably technology only advances in automated recognition while our phones also have the capability to access and store other useful data such as GPS, date, time, tides and even the weather. Although the increase of such technological methods of collecting and storing data will likely benefit conservation, perhaps obsolete will be the old fashioned need to carry a clipboard and nostalgic will be the smell of sharpening a pencil, and gone will be the sloppy jittery jot of a scientist’s handwriting on actual paper.

 

Florida Fish and Wildlife news article can be found here:

http://myfwc.com/news/news-releases/2016/december/20/fishbrain/

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ANAMAR Employee Spotlight Questionnaire: John Kearney

John professional photo FILEminimizer picasa

John is ANAMAR’s wonderful Controller/Accountant. He keeps us all sorted out in the billing department!

Q: How long have you worked at ANAMAR?

  • Almost 3 years

Q: What is your title at ANAMAR?

  • Controller

Q: What do you like most about your job?

  • The pleasant atmosphere. The staff are friendly and cooperative.

Q: What has been your favorite project/task at ANAMAR and why?

  • All of my tasks have been my favorite!

Q: Before working at ANAMAR, what was the most unusual or interesting job you've ever had?

  • All of my jobs have been usual and interesting. I could tell of interesting and unusual assignments but it would take much more space than allotted.

Q: When you were a kid, what did you want to be when you grew up?

  • I remember in the 8th grade saying I wanted to be a lawyer. Well, I guess I wanted a profession, so becoming a CPA was a pretty good choice for me.

Q:  Describe what you were like at the age of 10.

  • I was a kid and like most kids, I tried to have fun! I liked playing baseball a lot at 10.

Q:  Do you have any pets? If so, what kind of pet/pets and what are their names?

  • One dog, a beagle we adopted her. She was used to teach veterinarians. She was shy when we got her, but now she has changed. She does not bark at all. We have had her for 5 years, she is 7 years old.

Q:  If you could take a free vacation to anywhere in the world, where would you go?

  • Well this one is on my bucket list now but it would be nice if it were free: a river cruise on the Danube and Rhine rivers in Europe!

Q:  If you could time travel, to what place AND time would you go and why?

  • I would go to Jerusalem and neighboring towns at the time of Jesus Christ. I would like to see his preaching, the miracle we read about in the Bible including the crucifixion. It would be awesome to be able to return to our current day and tell the stories from a first person point of view.

Q:  If you could be an ocean dweller for a day which type of sea creature would you be?

  • A six gill shark. I could go to the deepest parts of the ocean and still be one of the strongest creatures so I can protect myself.

Q: If you could be any type of animal for a day what would you be and why?

  • A bald eagle so I can fly high and see so much of the earth.

Q: What is the first thing you would buy if you won the lottery?

  • I would buy a golf course, make it nice and enjoy golf with my regular crew.

Q: What's your favorite childhood memory?

  • My favorite childhood memories are the rounds of golf I played with my father and brother. We were always competitive, my father always won (he was good). As adults we had a chance to beat him, but not many times for me. I hope they have found a course in heaven and that I may be able to play with them again, if I make it!

 John employee spotlight FILEminimizer

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Word of the Day: Lightering

Word of the Day: Lightering

Definition

Lightering (also called lighterage) is the process of transferring cargo between vessels of different sizes, usually between a barge and a bulker or oil tanker. Lightering is undertaken to reduce a vessel's draft in order to enter port facilities which cannot accept very large ocean-going vessels. Lightering can also refer to the use of a lighter barge for any form of short-distance transport, such as to bring railroad cars across a river. In addition, lightering can refer to the process of removing oil or other hazardous chemicals from a compromised vessel to another vessel to prevent oil from spilling into the surrounding waters.

 

History

Lightering was practiced for all types of cargo for centuries. The practice became more widespread with the 19th century introduction of steamships too large to enter some of ports they intended to serve, in which case lightering became necessary to reduce the vessels' draft sufficiently to enter the port. Dredging, advances in dock construction, and containerization have reduced the frequency of the practice in dry bulk shipping after the middle of the 20th century. However, the practice remains in common usage in the oil tanking industry ("wet" cargo trade).

This article was copied from an article on Wikipedia® and the photo is courtesy of wikimedia commons. distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License

Here’s a recent article in which the process of lightering occurs.  http://maritime-executive.com/article/lightering-underway-after-mississippi-barge-allision

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Word of the Day: Parbuckle

 

noun

 

1.
a kind of tackle for raising or lowering a cask or similar object along aninclined plane or a vertical surface, consisting of a rope looped over apost or the like, with its two ends passing around the object to bemoved.
2.
a kind of double sling made with a rope, as around a cask to be raisedor lowered.
 
 
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Word of the Day: Etymology

Word of the Day:  Etymology

According to Wikipedia, etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By extension, the term "the etymology of [a word]" means the origin of the particular word.

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Dispelling Myths about the Coyote in Florida, Or, Probably More Than You Wanted to Know about the Coyote in Florida

Dispelling Myths about the Coyote in Florida,

Or,

Probably More Than You Wanted to Know about the Coyote in Florida

If you live in Florida you’ve probably heard people talk about coyotes (Canis latrans [Exhibits 1 and 2]) in Florida.  Below are facts gleaned from the literature regarding this interesting mammal.

How Did the Coyote Get Its Name?

The accepted common name ‘coyote’ comes from the Aztec term for the species, Coyotl.  Other names used for this species in North America include coyóte (Mexican), brush-wolf, prairie-wolf, American jackal, and little wolf (Beebe 1964).

 

Coyote pic 1

Exhibit 1A Coyote (Canis latrans) Photographed in Arizona

Photo courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.

Why Did Coyotes Expand Their Range into the Eastern United States and Florida?

Most of us know that coyotes are not native to the eastern U.S., including Florida.  Their range has historically been limited to the western U.S. (Layne 1997).  Humans eliminated gray wolves and red wolves from the eastern U.S. in the early- to mid-1900s, with the red wolf being last recorded in Florida at that time (Beebe 1964).  Wolves were apparently a major constraint on the range of the coyote, so their recent absence from parts of the U.S. allowed for the natural expansion of the coyote’s range.  Thus, the expansion of the coyote into Florida and elsewhere in the eastern U.S. is most likely due to humans extirpating the wolves in this area.  Humans may have helped the coyote become established in Florida through accidental release or escape and (or) intentional release (Layne 1997), such as for hunting. 

Here’s a timeline of the presence of the coyote in Florida:

  • Pre-historic: Coyote fossils found in Florida geology dating to the Pleistocene (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) (Webb 1974)
  • European colonization: No evidence of the species in Florida (Layne 1997)
  • 1970s: Coyotes were already well established in northern Florida (Layne 1997)
  • Early 1980s: The species was distributed through the middle of the Florida peninsula, from Hamilton County to Polk County (Brady and Campell 1983)
  • 1982: First sighting in Highlands County in southern Florida (Layne 1997)
  • 1988: The coyote’s range extended south to Broward and Collier counties (Wooding and Hardisky 1990)
  • 1995: A survey of coyote tracks by R. McBride found they were widely distributed in Highlands and Polk counties (Layne 1997)
  • 1991: Coyotes killed or trapped in Charlotte and Desoto counties (Layne 1997)
  • 2007: Coyotes documented in every county in Florida, and populations in Florida continue to increase (McCown and Scheick 2007)

What Habitats Do Coyotes Use Most Often?

In Florida, coyotes frequent improved pastures, native prairies, and citrus groves according to a survey by R. McBride cited in Layne (1997).  Den sites are located along brushy slopes, areas of thick undergrowth of vegetation, inside hollow logs, within rocky ledges, and burrows made either by adult coyotes or by other mammals.  Tunnels leading to the den may be 5 to 25 feet long (1.5 to 7.5 meters).  The den chamber itself measures about 1 foot (0.3 meters) in width and is commonly located 3.3 feet (1 meter) below-ground.  Coyotes may undertake seasonal migrations between habitats in some areas of North America (Novak 1999).

What Is the Average Size of the Coyote’s Home Range?

A coyote can cover a distance of about 2.5 miles (4 km) in a night while searching for a meal.  They traveled an average distance of 19.3 miles (31 km) from the point of capture in a tagging study in Iowa, but one individual covered a whopping 200 miles (323 km) during that study (Novak 1999).  A coyote tagged in south-central Canada traveled a record distance of 338 miles (544 km) from the point of capture (Carbyn and Paquet 1986).  Home range sizes vary greatly, from 3 to 31 square miles (8 to 80 km2).  Males have larger home ranges than do females, and male ranges overlap one another considerably.  Females ranges are smaller and do not overlap with those of other females (Novak 1999).

What’s the Average Population Density for Coyotes?

Population densities are generally between 0.1 and 0.2 coyotes per square mile (0.2 to 0.4 individuals/km2), but can be as high as 1.2 individuals per square mile (2.0/km2) in areas having extremely favorable conditions (Knowlton 1972, Bekoff 1977).  A study of coywolves (hybrid of coyote x eastern gray wolf [Canis lupus lycaon]) living north of Boston, Massachusetts, found a very high population density in fall and winter, at 1.1 to 1.3 individuals per square mile (2.9 to 3.4 individuals/km2) and 0.8 individuals per square mile (2.0 individuals/km2), respectively (Way 2011).

When Are Coyotes Most Active?

Coyotes can be active at any time of day or night, but they are mainly nocturnal and crepuscular (Novak 1999) (crepuscular means active around dawn and dusk [insect-eating bats are another example of crepuscular mammals]).

Does a Coyote Sighting Mean They Are More Common in the Area Than in Other Areas?

Coyotes are found in every Florida county.  Their level of abundance cannot be measured merely by anecdotal sightings since coyotes try to blend in with their surroundings and not be seen.  Sightings of coyotes do not necessarily mean that they are more abundant where sighted.  Coyotes are wherever there is suitable habitat, regardless of whether or not they are seen.  A sighting only confirms that coyotes are present.

What Do Coyotes Eat?

Coyotes mainly eat small mammals.  Rabbits and rodents make up the bulk (90%) of their diet in most areas.  Larger animals such as deer are also commonly eaten, but mostly as scavenged carcasses, although sometimes after a chase in which several coyotes worked together to take down the animal.  Other food items include fishes (which they are capable of snatching from streams!), lizards, snakes, birds such as turkeys, insects, grasses, fruits (including watermelon, persimmon, and various wild berries), and seeds (Novak 1999, Coates et al. 2002).  A tracking study conducted in Tucson, Arizona, found that over a 33-day period during November 2005 through February 2006, a group of eight coyotes killed 19 domestic cats (Harris Environmental Group 2015).  This interesting study further strengthens the idea that domestic cats are much better off if kept entirely indoors.  The coyote is also capable of preying on small domestic dogs (McCown and Scheick 2007).  Livestock are occasionally taken but the impact on livestock numbers is minimal (Novak 1999).  In the western U.S., where coyotes share their range with American badgers, the two species have been documented to form hunting partnerships whereby the coyote uses its excellent sense of smell to locate burrowing rodents, and the badger uses its powerful legs and claws to dig out the prey, which they then share (Novak 1999).

How Often Do Coyotes Prey on Domestic Livestock Like Cattle?

It is true that coyotes can kill and consume livestock including calves, poultry, pigs, and goats (Coates et al. 2002).  However, coyotes are not a serious problem to livestock (with the possible exception of sheep [Coates et al. 2002]) in most parts of their range, and reports of livestock damage from this species appear to be driven by popular perception and emotional reactions.  In the words of the past Chief Game Biologist for Mississippi, H.E. Alexander, “Reports of livestock damage from these animals seems to be more dependent on popular attitudes and emotional reactions to conspicuous evidence of depredations at some time and place than on actual fluctuations [of coyote populations]” (Beebe 1964).  Coyotes are not a major concern to livestock producers in Florida according to McCown and Scheick (2007).

What’s the Average Size and Weight of an Adult Coyote?

Adult male coyotes weigh 18 to 44 pounds (8 to 20 kg).  Adult females weigh 15 to 40 pounds (7 to 18 kg).  Coyotes living in northern regions weigh more, on average, than do those living in southern regions of North America (Nowak 1999).  The average weight of a coyote in Alaska is 40 pounds (18 kg), contrasting with the average weight of 25 pounds (11.5 kg) for coyotes living in the deserts of Mexico according to Gier (1975).  An unusually heavy coyote from Canada that weighed 46 pounds (21 kg) was noted by Beebe (1964).  The largest coyotes are those living in the northeastern United States, owing to enhanced nutrition there and (or) hybridization with the gray wolf (Nowak 1999).  In general, coyotes are larger than foxes but smaller than wolves (Coates et al. 2002).

How Fast Can Coyotes Run?

Coyotes are very speedy runners!  Picture this: a coyote racing in the World Championships in Athletics against legendary world record-holder Usain Bolt.  Usain runs a breathtakingly fast time of 9.58 seconds for the 100‑meter sprint.  That’s 23.4 miles per hour (mph) (37.7 km/hour)!  Now, let’s focus on the coyote.  The coyote explodes out of the starting line at a staggering pace, crossing the finish line in about half the time (4.47 seconds) it took Usain to cover the same distance!  That’s right, coyotes are fast and capable of running at speeds of up to 50 mph (80.5 km/hour) (Sooter 1943, Fisher 1975).  Although Novak (1999) gives a top speed of 64 mph (103 km/hour), this is higher than what is stated by most other sources.  Coyotes are clearly one of the fastest terrestrial mammals in North America.

Coyote Reproduction 101

Litter size averages about 6 pups but ranges from 2 to 12 pups.  Large numbers of pups have been found in a single den but were probably the result of litters from more than one female.  Females produce only one litter annually (Novak 1999).  Mating occurs during January through March, and gestation takes about 2 months (Coates et al. 2002).  Parturition (birthing) takes place in spring.  The pups weigh only about 8.8 ounces (250 grams) at birth.  Their eyes don’t open until day 14.  Young emerge from the den within about 3 weeks of birth and are fully weaned at about 9 months, at about which time they approach the weight and size of adult coyotes.  The average life span is less than 6 years, with the most significant mortality being within the first year of life (Coates et al. 2002).  The maximum longevity was recorded at 14.5 years in the wild, but most wild coyotes do not survive this long.  One long-lived captive coyote lived 21 years and 10 months (Jones 1982).

Do Coyotes Sometimes Hybridize with Other Canids?

Coyotes are well known to interbreed with domestic dogs (producing what are called ‘coydogs’).  Coyotes also interbreed with eastern gray wolves (Way 2011) as well as with red wolves (Canis lupus rufus), producing ‘coywolves’.  The offspring produced are fertile. 

What Are the Regulations on Hunting Coyotes in Florida?

The hunting and trapping of coyotes is allowed year-round throughout Florida (http://myfwc.com/‌hunting/season-dates).  However, a permit from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) is needed for using steel traps, such as leg-hold traps.  More information on how to apply for a steel trap permit is found at http://myfwc.com/license/wildlife/nuisance-wildlife/steel-traps/.  FWC keeps a list of nuisance-wildlife trappers at https://public.myfwc.com/HGM/NWT/NWTSearch.aspx?.

 

Coyote pic 2

Exhibit 2The California Valley Subspecies of Coyote (Canis latrans clepticus) Photographed in the San Gabriel Mountains of California
Photo courtesy of Justin Johnsen and Wikipedia Commons.

Sources

Beebe, B.F.  1964.  American Wolves, Coyotes, and Foxes.  David McKay Co., Inc., New York, NY.

Bekoff, M.  1977.  Social behavior and ecology of the African Canidae: A review.  Pp. 120–142.  In: M.W. Fox (ed.)  The Wild Canids: Their Systematics, Behavioral Ecology and Evolution.  R.E. Krieger Publishing Co., Inc., Malabar, FL.

Brady, J.R. and H.W. Campell.  1983.  Distribution of coyotes in Florida.  Florida Field Naturalist 11:40–41.

Carbyn, L.N. and P.C. Paquet.  1986.  Long distance movement of a coyote from Riding Mountain National Park.  Journal of Wildlife Management 50:89.

Coates, S.F., M.B. Main, J.J. Mullahey, J.M. Schaefer, G.W. Tanner, M.E. Sunquist, and M.D. Fanning.  2002.  The Coyote (Canis latrans): Florida’s Newest Predator [online resource].  Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Dept. document WEC124, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF, Gainesville, FL.  Accessed 04/22/15 at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/UW/UW12700.pdf.

Fisher, J.  1975.  The plains dog moves east.  National Wildlife 13(2):1417.

Gier, H.T.  1975.  Ecology and behavior of the coyote (Canis latrans).  Pp. 247–262.  In: M.W. Fox (ed.) The Wild Canids: Their Systematics, Behavioral Ecology, and Evolution.  Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY.

Harris Environmental Group, Inc.  2015.  Coyote’s Eat Cats! [online resource].  Accessed 04/22/15 at http://www.heg-inc.com/2009/08/coyotes-eat-cats/.

Jones, M.L.  1982.  Longevity of captive mammals.  Der Zoologische Garten 52:113–128.

Knowlton, F.F.  1972.  Preliminary interpretations of coyote population mechanics with some management implications.  Journal of Wildlife Management 36:369–382.

Layne, J.  1997.  Nonindigenous mammals. Pp 157–186.  In: D. Simberloff, D.C. Schmitz, and T.C. Brown (eds.), Strangers in Paradise, Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida.  Island Press, Washington, D.C.

MacCown, W. and B. Scheick.  2007.  The Coyote in Florida [online resource].  Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, FL.  Accessed 04/22/15 at http://myfwc.com/media/1228800/CoyoteWhitePaperFinal.pdf.

Nowak, R.M.  1999.  Walker’s Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition, Volume I.  The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Sooter, C.A.  1943.  Speed of a predator and prey.  Journal of Mammalogy 24:102–103.

Way, J.G.  2011.  Record pack-density of eastern coyotes/coywolves (Canis latrans x lycaon).  The American Midland Naturalist 165(1):201–203.

Webb, S.D.  1974.  Chronology of Florida Pleistocene mammals.  In: S.D. Webb (ed.), Pleistocene Mammals of Florida.  University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Wilson, L.D. and L. Porras.  1983.  The Ecological Impact of Man on the South Florida Herpetofauna.  The University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Special Publication No. 9, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

Wooding, J.B. and T.S. Hardisky.  1990.  Coyote distribution in Florida.  Florida Field Naturalist 18:12–14.

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Getting to Know Florida’s Sandhill Cranes

Getting to Know Florida’s Sandhill Cranes

 

Florida’s Resident Cranes

Florida is home to two distant relatives of the nearly extinct whooping crane. Florida’s permanent resident, the 'Florida sandhill crane' (Grus canadensis pratensis), breeds year round and does not migrate; their population is said to range between 4,000 and 5,000. Florida’s migratory crane; the 'greater sandhill crane' (Grus canadensis tabida), breed in their nesting grounds around the Great Lakes region and have an estimated population of around 25,000.

Sandhill Crane Habitat, Mating, and Diet

Winter nesting habitats for both sandhill crane species is near vegetation mats and shallow water. Cranes partner into monogamous pairs and lay an average of two eggs while nesting. After nearly a month, the eggs will hatch. About a day later, the hatchlings will be capable of following their parents to forage and hunt for a variety of foods. The typical crane diet ranges from seeds, roots, and berries to worms, mice, and frogs.

Becoming Adult Cranes

After nearly two months of following their parents, juvenile cranes are old enough to be independent, though a crane is independent it will continue to flock and migrate alongside its parents.

(The videos below are courtesy of www.youtube.com and represent the two sandhill crane species that live either year round or part of the year in Florida. Oh, and the cranes in the videos are dancing! Check it out!)

Video of Florida’s Sandhill Crane:

Video of the Greater Sandhill Crane:

Sources:

http://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/profiles/birds/cranes/sandhill-crane/

Both videos courtesy of: www.youtube.com

 

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2014 Mouth of the Columbia River Deep Water Site and Shallow Water Site Monitoring Series, Part 3 of 4: Epifaunal Trawls

Part 3 of our Oregon adventure series describes the epifaunal trawl sampling efforts that were part of the June and October surveys.  During the two surveys, the team conducted four 10‑minute trawl tows at each of three drop zones inside the DWS for a total of 12 trawl tows.

The objective of the study is to characterize the epifaunal community (both invertebrates and fishes) at drop zones within the DWS, including a comparison of taxonomic richness and diversity between zones and with previous monitoring survey results. 

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Getting ready to deploy the trawl.

 

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Deploying the trawl.

 

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Sorting the catch.

 

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A Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from a trawl catch. Some of the scales have rubbed off. Note the orange-yellow spots.

 

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Egg capsule of the big skate (Raja binoculata) from the trawl catch. This one measured 256 mm, which is rather large for skates in general but is only average size for the aptly-named big skate.

 

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This spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus collier) and smelt (Osmeridae) from a trawl catch were measured and released.

 

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A staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) being measured.

 

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Boney fishes were measured as standard length (from tip of nose to end of vertebral column).

 

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A scallop shell was part of a trawl catch.

 

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A small octupus was caught during trawling. It was recorded and released.

 

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This large sea anemone retracted its tentacles following capture in a trawl.

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Word of the Day: Pejorative

I was reading an article and came across the word pejorative, which, to my knowledge, I had never seen.  A Google search (https://www.google.com/#q=pejorative+definition) came up with the definition below.  I don’t think it’s a word I’ll use often, if ever.pejorative

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Ever Wonder How Florida Fish & Wildlife Collar a Florida Panther?

Check out this cool video!

 

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